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MACulinea Butterflies of the Habitats Directive and European Red List as Indicators and Tools for Habitat Conservation and MANagement


Elisabeth Kuehn (
Josef Settele (


Duration of funding: 1 February 2002 to 31 January 2006


Maculinea butterflies are typical representatives of endangered European biodiversity. All species are listed by the IUCN as globally threatened, and for all species Europe is an important part of their distributions and thus the special responsibility of Europe.


The project has four main objectives:

  1. to increase knowledge in inter- and intra-specific variation in the functional ecology of Maculinea systems across Europe
  2. to assess the suitability of Maculinea butterflies as indicators of biodiversity along a European transect;
  3. to develop standards for monitoring Maculinea butterflies as indicators and tools for grasslands and their management
  4. to promulgate and exploit these monitoring standards.


MacMan was a RTD project funded from 2002 to 2006 by the European Commission within its 5th Framwork Programme (FP5; EVK2-CT-2001-00126).
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